When you reference a cell in Excel, there are 2 kinds of reference types, they are relative reference and absolute reference. This article will tell you how to reference an Excel cell relatively and absolutely with examples.

### 1. What Are Absolute Cell References In Excel?

#### 1.1 What Are Relative Cell References?

- By default, we reference a cell in a formula using the relative cells reference.
- For example, in the formula
**=A2+B2**, we reference the cells**A2**, and**B2**relatively. - So when you apply the autofill or flash fill operation to the above formula cell, it will change the formula content to such as =A3+B3, =A4+B4, =A5+B5, =A6+B6 for different rows and the same column.
- You can read the article What Does Flash Fill And Autofill Do In Excel to learn more.
- So if you need to reference a cell relatively in an Excel formula, just use strings like
**A2**and**B2**.

#### 1.2 What Are Absolute Cell References?

- But in some cases, we need to reference a fixed cell in the formula.
- We do not want to change the cell address when applying autofill or flash fill operation to a formula cell.
- how can we do this? The absolute cell references can do that.
- To use absolute cell references, we need to add the
**$**character before the column name and row number. - For example,
**$A$2**will refer to cell A2 absolutely, when you apply autofill and flash fill operation to the cell formula, it will not be changed. - We can also use $A2 to fix the column or A$2 to fix the cell row number, but this is rarely used.

### 2. Absolute Cell References In Excel Examples.

- Below is the example data table, column
**A**saves the English test score number, column**B**saves the Math test score number, and column**C**is a multiplier number.A B C D E 1 English Math Multiplier Add Score AddScore * Multiplier 2 92 98 3 =A2+B2 =D2 * $C$2 3 89 95 =A3+B3 4 90 88 =A4+B4 5 80 89 =A5+B5

- We need to calculate the
**English + Math**score number and save the number in column**D**. - We also need to calculate the
**AddScore*Multiplier**number and save the number in column**E**. - In this example, we will use both relative cell reference and absolute cell reference in Excel.
- So we can input the formula
**=A2+B2**in cell**D2**, then press**Enter**key to select cell**D2**. - Select cell
**D2**, then there is a mini square on the bottom right corner of cell**D2**. - Drag the mini square down to row 5, and release the mouse key.
- You can find the cell content of cells
**D3, D4, and D5**are**=A3+B3**,**=A4+B4**, and**=A5+B5**. - This is because we use relative cell references in the cell
**D2**formula. - Input the formula
**=D2 * $C$2**in cell**E2**and press the**Enter**key. - Select cell
**E2**, then you can find the small square in the bottom right corner of cell**E2**. - Drag the small square down to row 5 and release the mouse key.
- You can find the cell content of cells
**E3**,**E4**, and**E5**are**=D3 * $C$2**,**=D4 * $C$2**,**=D5 * $C$2**. - This is because we reference cell
**C2**with the absolute cell references in the formula (**$C$2**). - Then it will not change the cell address in the formula when you autofill the formula to other cells.